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Frequently Asked Questions
What is a Photovoltaic system? click to expand
The word Photovoltaic is composed of two terms: Photo - Photon which means "light" and Voltaic from "Volt" which is the unit used to measure electric potential at a given point.

Photovoltaic system uses cells to convert sunlight into electricity.

A Photovoltaic system consists of multiple components, including cells, mechanical and electrical connections and mountings and means of regulating and/or modifying the electrical output.

What are the various types of Photovoltaic systems? click to expand
A Photovoltaic system may be categorized as:

Grid-connected Photovoltaic system

Off-grid (stand-alone) Photovoltaic system

Hybrid Photovoltaic system

Grid-connected Photovoltaic system use Photovoltaic modules - converting sunlight into electric power, an inverter to convert direct current into alternating current, sub-construction consisting of the mounting system, cabling and components used for electrical protection, and a meter to record the quantity of electric power fed into the grid.

Off-grid (stand-alone) Photovoltaic system use charge controllers instead of inverters and have a storage battery for supplying the electric energy when there is no sunlight e.g. during night .

Hybrid Photovoltaic system is the Photovoltaic system supported by an additional power source for example, wind or diesel generator or the main grid.




What are the different components of a solar Photo voltaic System? click to expand
  • Modules: The function of modules is to turn sunlight to DC electricity.
  • Inverters: The basic function of an inverter is to convert the DC electricity produced from solar modules to AC electricity
  • Charge controller: A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. It prevents overcharging and may prevent against over voltage.
  • Circuit breaker: A circuit breaker in a solar photovoltaic system protects an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit.
  • Battery : If the current is not fed into the grid, a well-designed battery bank is required for storing power generated.

How much do the solar Photovoltaic modules weigh? click to expand
MOSERBAER SOLAR LTD (MBSL). Max series Crystalline silicon Photovoltaic modules weigh about 18.7 kg (11.3 kg per m2 ) each. Amorphous silicon thin film Photovoltaic modules weigh 100 kg (17.5 kg per m2 ) each.

What are the maintenance requirements or other costs for a Photovoltaic system? click to expand
There is typically little or no maintenance required. Only a periodic inspection is required to ensure that the Photovoltaic modules remain clear of leaves, dirt, bird droppings, etc. The modules may be cleaned with water. Other than that there is no maintenance required, unless there is any technical failure.

How do Photovoltaic systems stand up to hail, wind, hurricanes etc.? click to expand
Photovoltaic systems are designed to withstand all weather conditions. Lightning, winds up to 80 miles per hour, snow and extreme temperatures are all things your solar system can handle. However, extreme conditions will temporarily reduce its energy production.

The modules are certified and tested to withstand hurricane force winds, and rainstorms. Falling stone, tree or hail does not damage the modules in most cases.

How much roof space does a Photovoltaic system need? click to expand
As a rule of thumb, a rooftop Photovoltaic system requires 12-15** square metre of unshaded space per KW of capacity installed.

A solar farm using crystalline silicon modules shall require about 5 acres** of land per MW installed, while the corresponding requirement is 9 acres** if amorphous silicon thin film modules are being used.

What do kWp and kWh mean? click to expand
“Watt” is the unit used to measure power and a kilowatt is equal to 1000 watts.

kWp stands for kilowatt peak, which is the maximum power that a solar panel will produce under ideal conditions.

Colloquially known as “units”, kWh stands for kilowatt hour, and is the measure of energy consumed (power*time ).

Can I get paid for generating electricity? click to expand

Yes, with the Government Feed In Tariff, we can get paid for generation power using solar modules. A Feed In Tariff (FIT) is a Government incentive scheme to encourage uptake of Micro-generation.

Does Photovoltaic system need bright sunshine to work properly? click to expand
Photovoltaic system not only uses the direct component of the light, but also produces electricity when the sky is overcast. Photovoltaic system will tend to generate more electricity on bright days than when skies are overcast. It is a common misconception that Photovoltaic system only operates in direct sunshine and is therefore not suitable for use in temperate climates. This is not correct: Photovoltaic system makes use of diffuse solar radiation as well as direct sunlight.

Is efficiency important with solar Photovoltaic modules? click to expand
The efficiency of a solar module relates to how effectively it can convert the sun’s light. Given that the sunlight is free ,a module can simply be made larger to offset a lower efficiency. Only when suitable roof area is available at a premium cost does it make sense to choose high efficiency modules.

How long does a Photovoltaic module last? click to expand
MOSERBAER SOLAR LTD.(MBSL) solar Photovoltaic modules come with a 25 year power output warranty. On the electronic components and accessories (inverters, batteries, controllers), the warranties vary as per specifications. But this doesn't mean that Photovoltaic modules don't produce energy after 25 years. Most Photovoltaic modules installed more than 25 years ago, still produce energy today.


Are MBSL Photovoltaic modules certified and approved? click to expand
Moser Baer Solar Ltd. (MBSL) branded modules are MNRE compliant, and certified for use the world over. Moser Baer is the first solar company in the world to have been awarded a 5-star rating for quality systems by TÜV Rheinland.

What is the annual output of a Photovoltaic system? click to expand
In most parts of India, a 1 KW system can generate 1250-1500 units (KWh) of electricity in a year. So, for a household using an average of 300 units a month (annual consumption of 3600 KWh), such a system can take care of roughly one-third** of the annual energy requirement.

What are the benefits of using Photovoltaic system? click to expand
Compared to non-renewable sources such as coal, gas, oil, and nuclear, the advantages are:
  • Generates free energy from the sun
  • Has no moving parts to break down thus requiring minimal maintenance
  • Non-polluting energy reduces emissions: Has no direct impact on the environment
  • Photovoltaic cells are modular, you can start with a small system and expand as your needs increase
  • System have a long life & durability. Cells last 25-30 years
  • Grid-Tie Photovoltaic system allow you to sell excess electricity back to the utility
  • Can be installed and operated anywhere including areas of difficult access and remote locations
  • Helps to be independent of foreign oil
  • Photovoltaic system makes no noise and give off no exhaust
  • Allows the use of electricity in remote areas where it would be expensive or impossible to run power lines
  • Rebates and incentives available. Several subsidies/ schemes from the Union government, plus state and local incentives

Does MBSL manufacture thin-film solar Photovoltaic modules? click to expand
Yes, MBSL manufactures amorphous silicon thin film Photovoltaic modules.

What are the benefits of installing amorphous silicon thin film Photovoltaic modules in regions of hot climatic conditions? click to expand
Amorphous silicon thin film modules have been proven to perform better at high temperatures. The benefits include:
  • 5 – 10% higher output in hot climates.
  • 5 – 7% increased output in diffuse light conditions, leading to increased duration of power generation every day.
  • An additional advantage of 3 – 4% due to reduced Light Induced Degradation (LID) in hot climates.

How much does a Solar Photovoltaic system cost? click to expand
The cost of the system depends on many factors like the size, location and requirement. A grid tied system costs between Rs 170/Wp to Rs. 190 /Wp**. Large solar farms cost Rs 9 Crore/MW to Rs 12 crore/MW**. The costs for battery-backed systems depend on the size of the battery bank.

What are the financing options for installing off-grid Photovoltaic system under JNNSM? click to expand
  • Capital Subsidy
    A capital subsidy of 30 % is provided, facilitated by MNRE, to lighten the burden of financing the initial project cost to enable financial closure of viable business proposition.
  • Interest Subsidy
    5 % interest bearing loan is given after due diligence of credit appraisal by FIs, NBFC, Micro finance institutions.

Boundary conditions for support to off-grid solar PV applications which are yearly revised by the government:



There are many National and state solar policies which provide subsidy on solar investment. You can visit the for further information.

Please to contact us and our trained staff will help design a customized system suited to your specific needs.
** The above is indicative only and is provided as a means to educate consumers on solar. The actual design, cost, generation etc will vary depending on several factors such as location, type of technology chosen, type of design etc.


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